IGF – 1 DES
IGF1 belongs to the insulin gene family. It is a mitogenic polypeptide growth factor that stimulates the proliferation and survival of various cell types including muscle, bone, and cartilage tissue in vitro. IGF1 DES is a truncated variant of human IGF1 with the tripeptide Gly-Pro-Glu absent from the N-terminus. It has been isolated from bovine colostrum, human brain, and porcine uterus. The IGF1 DES is believed to result from post-translational cleavage of IGF1 via protease activity. It is about 10-fold more potent than IGF1 at stimulating hypertrophy and proliferation of cultured cells, a consequence of much reduced binding to IGF-binding proteins, which is in turn caused by the absence of the glutamate at position 3. Clinical opportunities for IGF1-DES have not yet been evaluated, but could apply in catabolic states as well as for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases.